The third-largest rice producer in the world today, Indonesia became rice sufficient in 1984. Between 1970 and 2006, Indonesia's average rice yield rose by 90% from 2.35 to 4.62 t/ha. Most of Indonesia's rice-producing area is on the island of Java.
Rice in Indonesia is grown at varying altitudes and under diverse climates and socioeconomic conditions. About 65% of the country’s total rice area is irrigated, 18% is rainfed lowland, 9% is tidal swamp and flood-prone, and 8% is in the uplands. The highly agriculturally fertile island of Java alone contributes about 60% of Indonesia’s total rice production.
The map below shows the uplands of Indonesia.
Marginal uplands in Indonesia
Despite being one of the largest rice producers in the world, food security remains a problem. About 60% of the poorest Indonesians live on small farms and 80% of those in the bottom fifth of income earners live in rural areas.
Rice planting in Indonesia begins during the rainy season (around October), with harvesting in February or March. Local rice types adapted to swampy areas are planted during the dry season because these are tolerant of drought at the latter stages.
Acid sulfate soils are a major constraint in rice cultivation, along with water shortage and flooding and drought that could both happen in one season. The land-person ratio, which is considered as one of the lowest among agrarian communities in the world at an average of 362 m2 per capita, and land ownership are seen as major constraints to improving household income and livelihood.
Indonesia’s total area affected by drought is estimated at 337,100 hectares.
Drought-prone areas in Indonesia
Floods occur frequently in Indonesia, making them a serious threat to sustainable national rice production. In the last 10 years, an average of 300,000 hectares of paddy fields were affected, 60,000 ha of which were completely flooded, causing significant losses for farmers.
Flood-prone areas in Indonesia
Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR)
* On study leave
- Dr. Indrastuti Rumanti
- Dr. Suwarno
- Mr. Yudhistira Nugraha*
- Ms. Suhartini*
Released rice varieties
| Name of variety|| Year released|| Ecosystem|
| Inpago Lipi 1|| 2011|| Drought|
| Inpago Lipi 2|| 2011|| Drought|
| Inpari 29 (Rendaman)|| 2012|| Submergence|
| Inpari 30 (Ciherang-sub1)|| 2012|| Submergence|
| Inpara 1|| 2009|| Submergence|
| Inpara 2|| 2009|| Submergence|
| Inpara 3|| 2009|| Submergence|
| Inpara 4 (Swarna-sub1)|| 2009|| Submergence|
| Inpara 5 (IR64-sub1)|| 2009|| Submergence|
| Inpago 9|| 2012|| Upland|
| Inpari 28 (Kerinci)|| 2012|| Upland|
| Inpago 7|| 2011|| Upland|
| Inpago 8|| 2011|| Upland|
| Inpago 4|| 2010|| Upland|
| Inpago 5|| 2010|| Upland|
| Inpago 6|| 2010|| Upland|
Drought. Field trials, selection of lines, screening of genotypes, participatory varietal selection, and the release of Inpago Lipi 1 and Inpago Lipi 2.
Weed control in rainfed environments. An experiment was conducted in Jakenan, Central Java, and Lombok Tengah, West Nusa Tenggara, in the wet season of 2011.
- Indonesia implemented various PVS-related activities:
- Identified and validated drought-tolerant germplasm by screening 150 elite lines under drought conditions in the greenhouse at seedling stage (2011).
- Developed and tested improved component technologies depending on local needs (weed control in rainfed environment; survey of toposequences for weed distributions; nutrient management for rainfed lowlands).
- Verified site-specific nutrient management in rainfed lowland baseline.
- Surveyed socioeconomic and biophysical conditions at drought-prone sites.
Survey of toposequences for weed distribution. This survey was done in the WS of 2011 in four villages in Jakenan, Pati, Central Java.
Nutrient management for rainfed lowlands. Omission plot experiments were done in Jakenan and Lombok Tengah.
Verifications of site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) in rainfed lowlands. Verifications of SSNM were carried out in Haurgeulis Indramayu in the WS of 2011.
Submergence. Varieties released. In the last few years of CURE activities with IRRI, the Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR) and the Indonesian Center for Food Crops Research and Development (ICFORD) released seven rice varieties with adaptability in swampy areas:
Management options. Nutrient management based on the rate and the time of fertilizer application, either before or after the rice plant was subjected to full submergence, for several rice lines and varieties was studied in a greenhouse at the Muara Experimental Station.
- Inpara 1 (B B9852E-KA-66)
- Inpara 2 (B10214F-TB-7-2-3)
- Inpara 3 (IR70213-9-CPA-12-UBN-2)
- Inpara 4 (Swarna-Sub1)
- Inpara 5 (IR64-Sub1)
- Inpari 29 (Rendaman)
- Inpari 30 (Ciherang-Sub1)
Screening of breeding populations under completely submerged conditions. A total of 461 F4–F8 lines were screened for tolerance for complete submergence of 15 days under field conditions in Sukamandi in the 2012 dry season.
Participatory varietal selection (PVS). An experiment was carried out in Desa Sukamulya, Kecamatan Tungkal Ilir, Banyuasin, South Sumatera. In a mother trial managed by researchers and farmers, 16 flood-tolerant lines (checks included) were planted in a randomized block design.
Uplands. Varieties released. Indonesia, through ICRR, developed and released seven new improved upland rice varieties:
- Inpago 4, 5, and 6 were released in 2010
- Inpago 7 and 8 were released in 2011
- Inpago 9 was released in 2012
- Inpari 28 Kerinci was released in 2013 (drought/upland)
Evaluation of breeding lines. To arrive at the above accomplishments, ICRR evaluated 300 breeding lines with check variety Sigambiri at two elevations, 1,200 and 1,500 m.
ICRR also evaluated another set of 260 breeding lines for blast resistance with check varieties Situ Patenggang, Limboto, Batutegi, and Inpago 6.
Participatory varietal selections (PVS). PVS trials of 10 promising blast-resistant lines and check varieties Situ Patenggang, Batutegi, Limboto, and Inpago 8 were conducted in three locations: Cianjur, Indramayu, and Kebumen.